Hoarseness. If refluxed liquid gets past the upper esophageal sphincter, it can enter the throat (pharynx) and even the voice box (larynx). The resulting inflammation can lead to a sore throat and hoarseness As with coughing and asthma, it is not clear just how commonly GERD is responsible for otherwise unexplained inflammation of the throat and larynx. When this ring of muscle does not close all the way, stomach contents can leak back into the esophagus. This is called reflux or gastroesophageal reflux. Reflux may cause symptoms. Harsh stomach acids can also damage the lining of the esophagus.
GERD is caused by frequent acid reflux. GERD is treated with life-style changes, diet , over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription drugs (for example, antacids, proton pump inhibitors ( PPIs ), pro-motility drugs), and surgery. If heartburn occurs two or more times a week, it is known as GERD for short. A second type involves news the application of radio-frequency waves to the lower part of the esophagus just above the sphincter. The waves cause damage to the tissue beneath the esophageal lining and a scar (fibrosis) forms. The scar shrinks and pulls on the surrounding tissue, thereby tightening the sphincter and the area above it.
Esophageal manometric and impedance studies – pressure measurements of the esophagus – occasionally help identify low pressure in the LES or abnormalities in esophageal muscle contraction. Approximately 60 million adults are affected by acid reflux, with about 25 million living with the symptoms on a daily basis.1 Unfortunately the prevalence of acid reflux in the population is still on the rise. A small number of people with GERD may need surgery because of severe reflux and poor response to medical treatment. However, surgery should not be considered until all other measures have been tried. Fundoplication is a surgical procedure that increases pressure in the lower esophagus. Endoscopic procedures that involve making the LES function better or using electrodes to promote scarring of the LES are newer options in treatment.
Many patients are able to walk around the day after hernia surgery. Generally, there are no dietary restrictions and the patient can resume his or her regular activities within a week. Complete recovery will take two to three weeks, and hard labor and heavy lifting should be avoided for at least three months after surgery. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee, even with surgery, that the hernia will not return. H2 antagonists are very good for relieving the symptoms of GERD, particularly heartburn. However, they are not very good for healing the inflammation (esophagitis) that may accompany GERD. In fact, they are used primarily for the treatment of heartburn in GERD that is not associated with inflammation or complications, such as erosions or ulcers, strictures, or Barrett’s esophagus.