Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a common condition, where acid from the stomach leaks up into the oesophagus (gullet). As previously mentioned, swallows are important in eliminating acid in the esophagus. Swallowing causes a ring-like wave of contraction of the esophageal muscles, which narrows the lumen (inner cavity) of the esophagus. The contraction, referred to as peristalsis, begins in the upper esophagus and travels to the lower esophagus. It pushes food, saliva, and whatever else is in the esophagus into the stomach. Acid reflux happens as a result of an abnormality in the upper part of the stomach and lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Normally, the LES would prevent the acid in the stomach from moving up into the esophagus. Reflux of acid begins to happen when the barrier between the stomach and the esophagus becomes impaired.

Esophageal manometry can check the function of the esophagus and lower esophageal sphincter. One unresolved issue in GERD is the inconsistent relationships among acid reflux, heartburn, and damage to the lining of the esophagus (esophagitis and the complications). Avoiding foods and beverages that can weaken the LES is often recommended. These foods include chocolate , peppermint, fatty foods, coffee, and alcoholic beverages. Foods and beverages that can irritate a damaged esophageal lining, such as citrus fruits and juices, tomato products, and pepper, should also be avoided if they cause symptoms.

Clues to the presence of diseases that may mimic GERD, such as gastric or duodenal ulcers and esophageal motility disorders, should be sought. Other causes of chest pain such as heart disease should be ruled out before making the diagnosis. 29 Another kind of acid reflux, which causes respiratory and laryngeal signs and symptoms, is called laryngopharyngeal go here reflux (LPR) or ” extraesophageal reflux disease ” (EERD). Unlike GERD, LPR rarely produces heartburn, and is sometimes called silent reflux. Symptoms of acid reflux include heartburn , regurgitation of bitter acid into the throat, bitter taste in mouth, ches pain, dry cough , hoarseness , feeling of tightness in the throat, and wheezing.

Normally, the diaphragm acts as an additional barrier, helping the lower esophageal sphincter keep acid from backing up into the esophagus. No diet has been proven to prevent GERD. However, certain foods may ease symptoms in some people. Avoid fatty or greasy foods, chocolate, caffeine , mints or mint-flavored foods, spicy foods, citrus, and tomato-based foods. These foods decrease the competence of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (also known as esophago-gastro-duodenoscopy or EGD ) is a common way of diagnosing GERD. EGD is a procedure in which a tube containing an optical system for visualization is swallowed. As the tube progresses down the gastrointestinal tract, the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum can be examined.

However, when reflux happens frequently, it burns the inside of the esophagus leading to the medical condition known as Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD). Severeheartburn, sore throats, hoarse throats, pain, and inflammation are the common symptoms of GERD. A small number of people with GERD may need surgery because of severe reflux and poor response to medical treatment. However, surgery should not be considered until all other measures have been tried. Fundoplication is a surgical procedure that increases pressure in the lower esophagus. Endoscopic procedures that involve making the LES function better or using electrodes to promote scarring of the LES are newer options in treatment.

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